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European Resource Center

Within the premises of the Centre for Education of Judges and Prosecutors in the Federation of BiH  (CEST FBiH), on 5th Decemeber, 2016, in the framework of the Regional Project: "Increasing the expertise of judicial institutions on human trafficking in Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina: The treatment of victims and victim-witnesses of human trafficking", a seminar for judges and prosecutors will be held on the topic: " Human Trafficking in the purpose of labor exploitation ".

The seminar is implemented by the International Forum of Solidarity-Emmaus in cooperation with the OSCE Mission in BiH and the Centre for Judicial and Prosecutorial Training of FBiH, with the support of the Helsinki Committee of the Netherlands and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.

The seminar will be opened by director of the CEST FBiH, Arben Murtezić and the presenters; Judge of the Supreme Court of the Federation, Mrs. dr. Ljiljana Filipović; Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mrs. Sena Uzunović; Judge of the Appeals Court in The Hague, Mr. Kees Klomp, will present the experience of the Dutch judiciary in the fight against human trafficking to judges and prosecutors from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Prosecutor of the Brcko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ms. Sadik Fatić and judge of the District Court of Banja Luka, Mr Dragan Aćić, will present one case from practice to fellow judges and prosecutors.

The purpose of the seminar is to strengthen the capacity of the judiciary and prosecution in the areas of investigation, prosecution and trial of cases of human trafficking in accordance with the standards of the European Union, with particular emphasis on improving the status and treatment of victims and witnesses in court proceedings.

Every year thousands of people around the world become victims of trafficking in human beings, and state and government are the main instances responsible for prevention and suppression of this crime and for the protection of persons who have experienced trafficking. Civil society organizations play an important role in the prevention of this crime, and protection of the victims, but also in encouraging their state and government to meet the standards that they have committed to, as well as monitoring whether they do so. Although Bosnia and Herzegovina is planning and organizing activities in the fight against trafficking in human beings for more than 15 years, especially towards the harmonization of the legal framework with international conventions, and in collaboration with civil society organizations has taken significant steps to combat this phenomenon, in recent years the number of trafficking victims who are citizens, especially minors who are victims of labor exploitation and forced begging, has been increased.

In order to provide an independent and objective assessment of further development and improvement of the national response to the problem of human trafficking, International Forum of Solidarity - EMMAUS (IFS-EMMAUS), a non-governmental organization with its long-term action and innovative activities in the field of combating and preventing trafficking in human beings, has published "Monitoring and Evaluation of Anti-trafficking Policies: A handbook for victims’ advocates", which was developed in the framework of the regional project Balkans ACT Now!, with the support of the European Union. The aim of the handbook is to present a comprehensive and detailed indicators that allow monitoring - permanent or temporary – of national anti-trafficking policies, with an emphasis on policies for the protection of victims; and can be applied in the countries of origin and the destination countries of victims. The manual has been prepared in cooperation and with the support of the BiH Ministry of Security/Department for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, the Association of Prosecutors of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Criminal Policy Research Center.

Also, based on the developed Handbook, IFS-EMMAUS has prepared and published a "Report on Trafficking in Human Beings in 2015 in Bosnia and Herzegovina". This report was prepared by representatives of the academic community, as well as professionals with extensive practical experience in the fight against trafficking in human beings and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings in BiH. The report presents the main findings of researchers in the process of monitoring, and recommendations for further actions are defined: the process of identifying victims of exploitation is to be improved, especially in the case of pre-arranged and forced marriages and begging; judges and prosecutors should apply the approach that will be oriented towards the rights of victims so they would not be subjected to repeated trauma and to enable compensation to them; the need for a free and effective legal assistance has also been noted; authorities should continue to take measures in order to conduct investigations and prosecute suspects.

Publications "Monitoring and Evaluation of Anti-trafficking Policies: A handbook for victims’ advocates" and "Report on Trafficking in Human Beings in 2015 in Bosnia and Herzegovina" are available to the general public, professionals and all interested individuals in printed and electronic form, in the European Resource Center for the Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings and other Forms of Exploitation, which is administrated by IFS-EMMAUS, as well as on the web sites www.bihat.ba, www.eurcenter.net and www.mfs-emmaus.ba.

In Europe, October 18th marks the day of the fight against human trafficking. Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as many countries in the world, is recognized as a country of origin, transit and destination of human trafficking victims.

Ministry of Security of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Department for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, in accordance with the Action Plan to counteract human trafficking 2016 - 2019 and the Programme of celebrating important dates related to human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and this year will undertake a series of activities and events related to marking October 18th , the European day against Human trafficking, and which should draw attention to the problems we face in combating trafficking in connection with the resolution of the difficult position of human trafficking victims.

In order to implement the planned activities and based on its positive experience in the celebration of this important date participants are representatives of the Association "New Generation" from Banja Luka, the Association "New Road" from Mostar, Association "Land of Children in BiH" in Tuzla, the International Forum Solidarity - EMMAUS, the Association "Medica" Zenica, the Association for the promotion of education for Roma "Otaharin" from Bijeljina, the Foundation "Lara" from Bijeljina, women's Association "Maja" from Kravica, women's Association "Most" from Visegrad, the Association of women "Goraždanke "Gorazde, Association" woman BiH "Mostar, Center for legal assistance for women Zenica, Association of Roma women" Better future "from Tuzla, NGO" future "from Modrica, the Association of women" Derventa "from Derventa and the Foundation" United women "Banja Luka.

International Forum of Solidarity-Emmaus (IFS-EMMAUS), through its many years of operation and innovative activities in the field of combating and preventing trafficking in human beings, and building the capacity of professionals and raising public awareness, helps fighting the state against this phenomenon. In recent years it has been observed that the number of trafficking victims who are citizens, especially minors who are victims of labor exploitation and forced begging, has grown. This is why IFS-EMMAUS  created a mobile application "BAN Human Trafficking" which has a goal to educate the general public, especially young people, about the problem of human trafficking and prevention of this type of crime in the context of the regional project "Balkans ACT (Against Crime of Trafficking) Now! ", supported by the European Union.

Through interactive game and quiz users will be familiar with the various forms of human trafficking. Acquainted with potential dangers, users will be able to recognize similar situations in real life, and so will be able to protect themselves and the people they know. Also, a better understanding of the experiences of victims of trafficking should contribute to reducing discrimination and improving the situation of victims.

IFS-EMMAUS, in cooperation with partner organizations and institutions, will implement educational activities in primary and secondary schools in different cities in BiH, for school children, their parents and teachers. During the educational activities in schools, students, with the help of professors of computer sciences, will be able to learn about the functions of BAN mobile applications, and to try to use the same.

Also, this year, IFS-EMMAUS participates in the campaign "Justice at last" which the European Day Against Human Trafficking, civil society organizations from all over Europe gathered around the problem of human trafficking, calling on all European governments to implement the ten action points (attached), in order to provide access to the right to compensation to trafficking victims and to remove all obstacles that prevent victims in the exercise of that right.

Trafficking in human beings is a heinous crime and a violation of fundamental rights.

Commissioner Avramopoulos, responsible for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship, together with the EU Anti-trafficking coordinator Myria Vassiliadou, recently presented the first Commission Report on progress in the fight against trafficking.

The report charts recent trends, it examines advances made and highlights the key challenges that the EU and its Member States need to address as a priority.

According to the latest data available, nearly 16,000 women, men, girls and boys are registered as victims of trafficking in the EU. However, given the complexity of reporting on this phenomenon, the actual number of victims is likely to be significantly higher than those registered by national authorities. Among the different forms of trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is still the most widespread (67% of registered victims), followed by trafficking for labour exploitation (21% of registered victims).

Over three quarters of the registered victims were women, while at least 15% were children. Child trafficking is reported by Member States as one of the trends that is increasing most sharply in the EU, with almost 2,500 victims in 2013-2014. Quite importantly, criminal networks are exploi-ting the current migration crisis by targeting the most vulnerable groups of people – and there’s none more vulnerable than a child.

There are, indeed, many gaps in the development and implementation of effective measures in different policy areas regarding human trafficking. For instance, the level of prosecutions and convictions remains worryingly low, especially when compared to the number of victims identified. To successfully tackle the challenges arising from trafficking, EU Member States need to fully and correctly implement the EU Anti-trafficking Directive of 2011.

This Directive introduces a gender perspective in areas such as criminal law provisions, pro-secution of offenders and support for victims.

The Report suggests that victims of human trafficking must not be criminalised, but, rather, those who exploit them and abuse them. Dimitris Avramopoulos has said that “we must prosecute those responsible and ensure appropriate convictions”.

Indeed, a top priority should be a reduction in the demand that triggers trafficking for all forms of exploitation.

We do have many challenges ahead. However, we have the right tools to address them.

Although significant progress has been made at eliminating incidents of trafficking in human beings, it is evident that more needs to be done; it is unacceptable that in the 21st century people are stripped of their fundamental human rights and are treated as commodities.

The Commission will continue working on a coordinated and consistent response in order to decisively tackle trafficking in human beings in close coordination with EU Member States.

(Reference: www.in-cyprus.com)

Women and unaccompanied minors are especially vulnerable to human trafficking, usually in the form of sex slavery. But a report noted other horrific forms of exploitation, such as using pregnant women to sell babies.

The problem of human trafficking in Europe is likely being exacerbated by the massive inflow of migrants, according to the first report of its kind by the European Commission (EC).

More than 1 million people sought asylum arrived in Europe last year, including nearly 90,000 unaccompanied minors - nearly four times as many as in 2014.

"Children are one of the most vulnerable groups targeted by traffickers," the EC reported, adding that they are "easy to recruit and quick to replace."

"Although child trafficking is prevalent in situations unrelated to migration," the report continued, "the information received suggests that the phenomenon has been exacerbated by the ongoing migration crisis."

Nearly 16,000 women, men and children registered as trafficking victims in 2013-14, before last year's migration surge. But the difficulty in gathering reliable information on the subject means that the real number of victims is almost certainly "substantially higher," according to the report.

Slightly more than two-thirds of registered victims were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Forced labor was the second most common form of exploitation, according to the report.

The EC also cited cases of trafficking of pregnant women to sell their newborn babies, as well as of people for the purpose of organ removal.

Read more: Brussels warns that mass migration to EU may exacerbate human trafficking

The number of children trafficked to EU countries by gangs - often for prostitution - is rising and the UK is a major destination, new data show.

The European Commission says child trafficking is "one of the trends that is increasing most sharply".

In 2013-2014 there were 15,846 registered victims of trafficking in the EU, at least 15% of them children.

Three-quarters of the victims were women, and 67% were trafficked for sex. Many other victims were not detected.

According to the official Commission figures, the UK registered 1,358 victims in 2013-2014, and the Netherlands registered the most - 1,561.

The Commission's research identified ever younger children becoming victims of trafficking and growing numbers of girls from Nigeria being pressed into the sex trade.

The EU has also seen an increase in the number of unaccompanied child asylum-seekers at risk of criminal exploitation.

Children from poor Roma (Gypsy) communities are particularly vulnerable to trafficking, the Commission says, with the UK and France the main destination countries.

Once there, they are exploited for sex, begging and petty crimes.

The Commission report says "there are solid grounds to believe that the actual numbers of victims of trafficking in the EU are substantially higher".

Migrant crisis

A report by the EU police agency Europol in February noted that most victims of human trafficking (71%) and most suspects (70%) in Europe were EU nationals.

In 2015 Italy saw a 300% increase in the number of Nigerian victims of trafficking arriving by sea compared to 2014, with about half of them unaccompanied children.

Europe's migrant crisis, fuelled chiefly by wars in the Middle East and unrest in Libya, has given trafficking gangs many new opportunities for criminal exploitation.

The top five EU countries of origin for victims were: Romania (top - 3,959), followed by Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Hungary and Poland.

Non-EU victims came mainly from Nigeria (1,188), followed by China, Albania, Vietnam and Morocco.

The report says the EU's Schengen Information System (SIS) - a cross-border database - is especially useful as a tool for tracking down child victims. It contains more than 30,000 alerts on missing adults and almost 60,000 alerts on missing minors.

(Reference: www.bbc.com)

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