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The Red Cross warns against the violence of Croatian border guards against migrants

The Red Cross warns against the violence of Croatian border guards against migrants trying to enter the country from neighboring Bosnia and Herzegovina, AP reports.

The International Federation of ...

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Germans unimpressed with Merkel's rebellious anti-migrant minister Seehofer, poll shows

Angela Merkel’s rebellious interior minister has failed to impress Germans with his hardline stance on migration, according to new polling likely to reinforce the chancellor’s position.  

A ...

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‘New Balkan Route’ for Migrants, Refugees Causes Alarm

A growing number of migrants and refugees using the new Balkan route through Albania, Montenegro and Bosnia to reach the EU raising concerns of a humanitarian and security crisis. Security and human ...

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Cop accused of sex crimes against human trafficking victims

Officer was investigating an Eastern European gang that brought women to Israel for prostitution; is suspended from force

A police officer was arrested Wednesday after he was found to have had ...

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Italian parents under house arrest for forcing 9-year-old into prostitution

The parents of a nine-year-old girl have been placed under house arrest for forcing their daughter into prostitution, police in the southern Italian region of Sicily said on Monday.

Two men aged 63 ...

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Let Europe face up to human trafficking in 2018

Europe’s reception of children seeking refuge is particularly shameful

Last year came to an end with horrific images of slave labour markets in Libya, and a further UN Security Council resolution ...

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Big hit against sexual exploitation: criminal group dismantled in Spain and Romania

Spanish National Police and the Romanian Police have joined forces, supported by Europol and Eurojust, to dismantle an organised crime group involved in trafficking women for sexual exploitation in ...

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European Resource Center

Forms

Sexual exploitation

This prevalent form of trafficking affects every region in the world, either as a source, transit or destination country.

Women and children from developing countries, and from vulnerable parts of society in developed countries, are lured by promises of decent employment into leaving their homes and travelling to what they consider will be a better life.

Victims are often provided with false travel documents and an organized network is used to transport them to the destination country, where they find themselves forced into sexual slavery and held in inhumane conditions and constant fear. Trafficking in persons is an increasing problem that involves both sexual exploitation and labour exploitation of its victims.

Trafficking affects all regions and the majority of countries in the world. Both men and women may be victims of trafficking, but the primary victims worldwide are women and girls, the majority of whom are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Traffickers primarily target women because they are disproportionately affected by poverty and discrimination, factors that impede their access to employment, educational opportunities and other resources.

 

Forced labour

Victims of this equally widespread form of trafficking come primarily from developing countries. They are recruited and trafficked using deception and coercion and find themselves held in conditions of slavery in a variety of jobs.

Men, women and children are engaged in agricultural and construction work, domestic servitude and other labour-intensive jobs. The movement of people for the purpose of forced labour and services usually involves an agent or recruiter, a transporter, and a final employer, who will derive a profit from the exploitation of the trafficked person. In some cases, the same person carries out all these trafficking activities.

Private recruitment agencies, intermediaries and employers may take advantage of this situation and lure potential migrants into exploitative employment. Not only is the journey hazardous for the victims, but upon reaching their destination they are subject to low paying menial work which is often degrading and work that they have to undertake in conditions close to slavery and bondage.

 

Trafficking in organs

Trafficking in humans for the purpose of using their organs, in particular kidneys, is a rapidly growing field of criminal activity. In many countries, waiting lists for transplants are very long, and criminals have seized this opportunity to exploit the desperation of patients and potential donors.

The health of victims, even their lives, is at risk as operations may be carried out in clandestine conditions with no medical follow-up. An ageing population and increased incidence of diabetes in many developed countries is likely to increase the requirement for organ transplants and make this crime even more lucrative. While it is commonly believed that trafficking only takes places for commercial sexualexploitation or for forced labour, trafficking in fact takes many forms such as trafficking for organ trade, among others.

Trafficking in organs is a crime that occurs in three broad categories.

  • Firstly, there are cases where traffickers force or deceive the victims into giving up an organ.
  • Secondly, there are cases where victims formally or informally agree to sell an organ and are cheated because they are not paid for the organ or are paid less than the promisedprice.
  • Thirdly, vulnerable persons are treated for an ailment, which may or may not exist and thereupon organs are removed without the victim's knowledge.

The vulnerable categories of persons include migrants, especially migrant workers, homeless persons, illiterate persons, etc. It is known that trafficking for organ trade could occurwith persons of any age. Organs which are commonly traded are kidneys, liver and the like; any organ which can be removed and used, could be the subject of such illegal trade.

Trafficking in organ trade is an organized crime, involving a host of offenders. The recruiter who identifies the vulnerable person, the transporter, the staff of the hospital/clinic and other medical centres, the medical professionals, the middlemen and contractors, the buyers, the banks where organs are stored are all involved in the racket. It is a factthat the entire racket is rarely exposed and therefore, the dimensions are yet to be appropriately fathomed.

 

Forced marriage

A forced marriage is where one or both people do not (or in cases of people with learning or physical disabilities, cannot) consent to the marriage and pressure or abuse is used. The pressure put on people to marry against their will can be physical (including threats, actual physical violence and sexual violence) or emotional and psychological (for example, when someone is made to feel like they’re bringing shame on their family). Financial abuse (taking your wages or not giving you any money) can also be a factor. This guide provides information for professionals protecting the victims of forced marriage. It also gives details of financial support for charities and awareness-raising publications.

Every year, an estimated 14 million girls worldwide under 18 are married without their consent. This practice – child/forced marriage – increases a girl’s vulnerability to health risks, domestic violence, and poverty. It also severely limits her access to education and economic opportunities.

Tostan, an international NGO headquartered in Senegal, works with communities to share factual information on hygiene and health, human rights, and democracy and teaches skills in literacy, numeracy, problem-solving, and project management, among other topics. Their three-year holistic education program enables communities to make connections between child/forced marriage and its harmful consequences, providing them with a basis to abandon the practice.

 

Sexual exploitation in children

Commercial sexual exploitation of children is the exploitation by an adult with respect to a child or an adolescent – female or male – under 18 years old; accompanied by a payment in money or in kind to the child or adolescent (male or female) or to one or more third parties.

The ILO considers commercial sexual exploitation of children an abhorrent violation of the human rights of children and adolescents and a form of economic exploitation similar to slavery and forced labour, which also implies a crime on the part of those who use girls and boys and adolescents in the sex trade.

Sexual exploitation of children includes all of the following:

  • The use of girls and boys in sexual activities remunerated in cash or in kind (commonly known as child prostitution) in the streets or indoors, in such places as brothels, discotheques, massage parlours, bars, hotels, restaurants, etc.
  • The trafficking of girls and boys and adolescents for the sex trade
  • Child sex tourism
  • The production, promotion and distribution of pornography involving children
  • The use of children in sex shows (public or private)

 

Forced begging

Forced child begging is a type of begging in which boys and girls under the age of eighteen are forced to beg through psychological and physical coercion. Begging is defined by the Buffalo Human Rights Law Review as "the activity of asking for money as charity on the street".

There is evidence to suggest that forced begging is one industry that children are trafficked into, with a recent UNICEF study reporting that 13% of trafficking victims in South Eastern Europe have been trafficked for the purpose of forced begging. The severity of this form of trafficking is starting to gain global recognition, with the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the European Union, the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the United Nations, among others, beginning to emphasize its pertinence.

The European Union's Brussels Declaration on Preventing and Combating Trafficking includes child begging as one form of trafficking, stating "trafficking in human beings is anabhorrent and worrying phenomenon involving coercive sexual exploitation, labour exploitation in conditions akin to slavery, exploitation in begging and juvenile delinquency as wellas domestic servitude." This issue is especially difficult to regulate given that forced begging is often imposed by family members, with parental power leveraged over a child to ensure that begging is carried out.

 

 

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